This illustration depicts a three-dimensional (3D) computer-generated image of three drug-resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteria. Of note, are the organisms’ peritrichous flagella, i.e., flagella protruding in all directions from the cell wall, and the numerous fimbriae, imparting a furry look to its exterior.
Non-typhoidal Salmonella (serotypes other than Typhi, Paratyphi A, Paratyphi B, and Paratyphi C) usually causes diarrhea (sometimes bloody), fever, and abdominal cramps. Some infections spread to the blood and can have life-threatening complications.
Doctors rely on drugs, such as ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin, for treating patients with complicated Salmonella infections. Resistant infections are more severe and have higher hospitalization rates. Non-typhoidal Salmonella is showing resistance to: ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, multiple classes of drugs.
Non-typhoidal Salmonella causes approximately 1.2 million illnesses, 23,000 hospitalizations, and 450 deaths each year in the United States. Direct medical costs are estimated to be $365 million annually. CDC is seeing resistance to ceftriaxone in about 3% of non-typhoidal Salmonella tested, and some level of resistance to ciprofloxacin in about 3%. About 5% of non-typhoidal Salmonella tested by CDC are resistant to five or more types of drugs. Costs are expected to be higher for resistant than for susceptible infections because resistant infections are more severe, those patients are more likely to be hospitalized, and treatment is less effective.
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – Medical Illustrator | CDC/ James Archer | 2013